THE EIGHTEENTH CENTURY 283 not only for Prussia and the other Protestant States of Germany, which, like her, made elementary education a matter for State control, but for all Europe. Efforts at reform in higher education were less common than those affecting elementary education. Apart from the private grammar schools and the dissenting academies of England, the only movement of any consequence in this direction was the one that began in Germany with the foundation of the university of Halle in 1694. There the combination of anti-scholasticism (repre- sented by Christian Thomasius), rationalism (represented by Christian Wolff) and unorthodox pietism (represented by Francke) led to a complete change in university subjects and methods, and established for the first time the principle of academic freedom which is the chief corner-stone of modern university life. Once under way the movement made rapid progress. A new university, even broader than Halle, was founded at Gottingen in 1737, and by the end of the century all the universities of Germany > both Protestant and Catholic, had come into line with the two pioneers. The results of the innovation, as summarized by Professor Paulsen, were as follows : " i. The spirit of modern philosophy and science had invaded all the faculties. 2. The principle of freedom both in research and in teaching was generally accepted, and recognized by the Governments as the fundamental law of the university. 3. Essential changes had taken place in the academic teaching. The old lectio—i.e., the interpretation of standard textbooks—had been replaced by the modern lecture—i.e.> the systematic presentation of a science. The traditional disputations were also dying out. Their place was taken more and more by the Seminary which did not aim, like the disputatiqns, at the consolida- tion of a canon of established truth, but at the introduction to the independent pursuit of learned studies. 4. The university lectures were generally delivered in German. 5. The study of the Classics everywhere ceased to aim at original literary production; the Neo-Latin literature had died out and its place was taken by the study of the ancients in the sense of Neo-Humanism, which sought to penetrate into the spirit of antiquity with the aim of furthering human culture."* A very important offshoot of the changes in Halle was the evolu- tion of a new type of school—the Reahchuh—intended to prepare * German Education, Past and Present* English translation, pp.